This article is about the 1984 film. For the 2012 remake, see Red Dawn (2012 film). For other uses, see Red Dawn (disambiguation).
Red Dawn is a 1984 American war film directed by John Milius, filmed in Metrocolor and Panavision, and co-written by Milius and Kevin Reynolds. It stars Patrick Swayze, C. Thomas Howell, Lea Thompson, Ben Johnson, Harry Dean Stanton, Ron O'Neal, William Smith, and Powers Boothe. It was the first film to be released in the US with a PG-13 rating.
The film is set in an alternate history timeline in which the United States is invaded by the Soviet Union and its Cuban and Nicaraguan allies. However, the onset of World War III is in the background and not fully elaborated. The story follows a group of American high school students who resist the occupation with guerrilla warfare, calling themselves Wolverines, after their high school mascot.
The United States has gradually become strategically isolated after several European nations (except the United Kingdom) withdraw from NATO. At the same time, the Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact partners aggressively expand their sphere of influence. In addition, the Ukrainian wheat harvest fails while a Communistcoup d'etat occurs in Mexico.
On a September morning, in the small town of Calumet, Colorado, a local high school teacher pauses when he sees Soviet paratroopers landing in a nearby field. The paratroopers open fire when the teacher confronts them. Pandemonium follows as students flee amid heavy gunfire. In downtown Calumet, Cuban and Soviet troops are trying to impose order after a hasty occupation. Cuban Colonel Bella instructs the KGB to go to a local sporting goods store and obtain the records of the store's gun sales on the ATF's Form 4473, which lists citizens who have purchased firearms.
Brothers Jed and Matt Eckert, along with their friends Robert, Danny, Daryl, and Aardvark, flee into the wilderness after hastily equipping themselves at a sporting goods store owned by Robert's father. While on the way to the mountains, they run into a Soviet roadblock, but are saved by an attacking U.S. ArmyUH-1 helicopter gunship. After several weeks in the forest, they sneak back into town; Jed and Matt learn that their father is being held in a re-education camp. They visit the site and speak to him through the fence; Mr. Eckert orders his sons to avenge his inevitable death.
The kids visit the Masons and learn that they are behind enemy lines in "Occupied America." Robert's father is revealed to have been executed because of the missing inventory from his store. The Masons charge Jed and Matt with taking care of their two granddaughters, Toni and Erica. After killing Soviet soldiers in the woods, the youths begin an armed resistance against the occupation forces, calling themselves "Wolverines," after their high school mascot. The occupation forces initially try reprisal tactics, executing groups of civilians following every Wolverine attack. During one of these mass executions, the fathers of Jed, Matt and Aardvark are killed. Daryl's father, Mayor Bates, is a collaborator and tries to appease the occupation authorities. Despite the reprisal tactics the occupation forces get nowhere.
The Wolverines find a downed pilot, Lt. Col. Andrew Tanner, who informs them of the current state of the war: several American cities, including Washington, D.C., were destroyed by nuclear strikes; the Strategic Air Command was crippled by Cuban saboteurs; and paratroopers were dropped from fake commercial airliners to seize key positions in preparation for subsequent assaults via Mexico and Alaska. The middle third of the U.S. has been taken over, but American counterattacks have halted Soviet advances along the Rocky Mountains and the Mississippi River and the lines have stabilized. The only remaining U.S. allies, the UK and China, are militarily crippled. Concerned about nuclear fallout, both sides refrain from the further use of nuclear weapons.
Tanner assists the Wolverines in organizing raids against the Soviets. Soon after, in a visit to the front line, Tanner and Aardvark are killed in the crossfire of a tank battle. Daryl is caught by the Soviets after being turned in by his collaborating father. Using threats of torture, KGB officers force Daryl to swallow a tracking device, then release him to rejoin the guerrillas. Spetsnaz are sent into the mountains carrying portable radio triangulation equipment, but are ambushed by the Wolverines. The group trace the source of the signal to Daryl, who confesses and pleads for mercy, but is executed by Robert after Jed executes a captured Soviet soldier.
The remaining members are ambushed by Mi-24 helicopter gunships, and Robert and Toni are killed. Jed and Matt attack the Soviet headquarters in Calumet to distract the troops while Danny and Erica escape. The plan works, but Jed and Matt are wounded. Though Colonel Bella comes across the brothers, he is unable to bring himself to kill them and lets them go. Nevertheless, it is implied the brothers die in the park where they spent time as kids.
Erica narrates that the U.S. repelled the Soviet invasion some time later. A plaque is seen with Partisan Rock in the background, with each dead (presumed) Wolverine's name inscribed upon it. The rock is fenced off and an American flag flies nearby. The plaque reads:
...In the early days of World War III, guerrillas – mostly children – placed the names of their lost upon this rock. They fought here alone and gave up their lives, so "that this nation shall not perish from the earth."
The film was originally called Ten Soldiers and was written by Kevin Reynolds. It was set in the near future as a combined force of Russians and Cubans launched an invasion of the Southwestern USA. Ten kids take to the hills when their small town is captured and they turn into a skilled and lethal guerrilla band.
The script was shown to MGM where then senior vice-president for production, Peter Bart, who remembers it as a "sharply written anti-war movie... a sort of Lord of the Flies." He took the project to the head of the studio, Frank Yablans. Bart recalls that things changed when "the chieftains at MGM got a better idea. Instead of making a poignant little antiwar movie, why not make a teen Rambo and turn the project over to John Milius, a genial and rotund filmmaker who loved war movies and also loved war? The idea was especially popular with a member of the MGM board of directors, General Alexander Haig, the former Nixon chief of staff, who yearned to supervise the film personally and develop a movie career."
Milius admits he was enthusiastic about the project:
When I was a kid in the early 60s and 50s, even... I went to high school in Colorado. One of the big things we wanted to be, aside from football players and skiers and everything else–we wanted to be mountain men. And so we read everything about Jim Pritchard and Jim Carson, all that kind of thing, you know, to be a woodsman. The greatest fantasy of all was that we were going to go up to the mountains and resist the Russians with flint-lock rifles, cap-lock rifles, anyway.
Milius says MGM decided to make the film because of the Soviet war in Afghanistan. "MGM decided we’re going to make this patriotic movie that’s mirroring the situation in Afghanistan, and we’ll release it during the Olympics." Milius set about rewriting the script. Some of the changes included a shift in focus from conflict within the group to conflict between the teens and their oppressors, and the acceleration of the ages of some of the characters from early teens to high school age and beyond.
Haig took Milius under his wing, bringing him to the Hudson Institute, the conservative think tank founded by Herman Kahn, to develop a plausible scenario. Milius saw the story as a Third World liberation struggle in reverse; Haig introduced Nicaragua and suggested that, with the collapse of NATO, a left-wing Mexican regime would participate in the Soviet invasion, effectively splitting the U.S. in half. Bart says "Even Milius was taken aback by Haig's approach to the project. "This is going to end up as a jingoistic, flag-waving movie," Milius fretted. Meanwhile, despite Haig's enthusiasm (or perhaps because of it) the Department of Defense flatly refused to extend any cooperation whatsoever. As a result, the budget of this once $6 million movie almost tripled."
Milius later said "I see this as an anti-war movie in the sense that if both sides could see this, maybe it wouldn't have to happen. I think it would be good for Americans to see what a war would be like. The film isn't even that violent – the war shows none of the horrors that could happen in World War III. In fact, everything that happened in the movie happened in World War Two."
The movie was filmed in and around the city of Las Vegas, New Mexico. Many of the buildings and structures which appeared in the film, including a historic Fred Harvey Company hotel adjacent to the train depot, the train yard, and a building near downtown, which was repainted with the name of "Calumet, Colorado", are still there today. An old Safeway grocery store was converted to a sound stage and used for several scenes in the movie.
Before starting work on the movie, the cast underwent an intensive eight-week military training course. During that time, production crews designed and built special combat vehicles in Newhall, California. Soldier of Fortune reported that the movie's T-72 tank was such a precise replica that "while it was being carted around Los Angeles, two CIAofficers followed it to the studio and wanted to know where it had come from".
Milius says the scene that meant the most to him was when the Wolverines execute the Russian soldier and the mayor's son, Daryl.
The rationale that Jed [Patrick Swayze's character] gives is, "We live here." For me that sort of summed up the anger and fear that followed Sept. 11. That's the emotional core of it, isn't it though? That's it. We live here. This is what we are. At the time I remember that was a very, very powerful scene... [I]t was extremely [difficult] to shoot that. We were way, way up on a place called Johnson's Mesa. It snowed. The wind was blowing in. It dropped below zero, everybody was getting frostbite, as well as the fact, I remember, everyone had dysentery. So you had the problem of everyone having to rush to various facilities wearing Avirex assault gear... I remember the power of that scene and that they got into it because of the fact that it was so bitterly cold. And yet it was so beautiful at the same time. Everybody became kind of strongly attached to the place.
Powers Boothe later claimed "Milius cut out the emotional life of its characters. Originally, my character was anti-war, as well as a rightist. I was supposed to be the voice of reason in that movie. But certain cuts negated my character."
Lea Thompson says the original cut featured a love scene between her and Powers Boothe but it "was cut out after some previews because of the age difference. And that was the main reason I took the movie-it was such a terrific scene."
Red Dawn was the 20th highest-grossing film of 1984, opening on August 10, 1984 in 1,822 theatres and taking in $8,230,381 on its first weekend. Its box office gross is $38,376,497.
Red Dawn received mixed reviews, receiving a score of 50% on Rotten Tomatoes based on 22 reviews.
The New York Times reviewer said "to any sniveling lily-livers who suppose that John Milius... has already reached the pinnacle of movie-making machismo, a warning: Mr. Milius's Red Dawn is more rip-roaring than anything he has done before. Here is Mr. Milius at his most alarming, delivering a rootin'-tootin' scenario for World War III."
MGM apologised to Alaska war veterans for the film's advertising, which claimed that no foreign troops had ever landed on US soil, thereby overlooking the Aleutian Islands Campaign.
At the time it was released, Red Dawn was considered the most violent film by the Guinness Book of Records and The National Coalition on Television Violence, with a rate of 134 acts of violence per hour, or 2.23 per minute. The DVD Special Edition (2007) includes an on-screen "Carnage Counter" in a nod to this.
A few days after the NCTV survey came out, 35 protestors picketed the MGM/UA building in opposition to the film. John Milius said:
What these people really don't like is that the movie shows violence being perpetrated against Russian and Cuban invaders, which is what the demonstration was all about. My question is, where were all these demonstrators when the Russians shot down that airliner? Were they cheering? And what about the people being gassed and yellow-rained in Afghanistan?... There's really no pleasure in outraging these people. I suppose next some extreme right wing organisation will give me an award, which is equally ridiculous.
Soon after the Gun Owners of America announced that they were honoring Milius for "dramatically depicting the importance in our time of the Second Amendment."
National Review Online has named the film No. 15 in its list of "The Best Conservative Movies." Adam Arseneau at the website DVD Verdict opined that the film "often feels like a Republican wet dream manifested into a surrealistic Orwellian nightmare".
According to Jesse Walker of Reason,
The film outraged liberal critics, but further to the left it had some supporters. In a witty and perceptive piece for The Nation, Andrew Kopkind called it "the most convincing story about popular resistance to imperial oppression since the inimitable Battle of Algiers," adding that he'd "take the Wolverines from Colorado over a small circle of friends from Harvard Square in any revolutionary situation I can imagine."
Libertarian theorist Murray Rothbard argued that the film was "not so much pro-war as it is anti-State." Rothbard gave the film a generally positive review, while expressing some reservations with the story:
One big problem with the picture is that there is no sense that successful guerrilla war feeds on itself; in real life the ranks of the guerrillas would start to swell, and this would defeat the search-and-destroy concept. In Red Dawn, on the other hand, there are only the same half-dozen teenagers, and the inevitable attrition makes the struggle seem hopeless when it need not be.
Another problem is that there is no character development through action, so that, except for the leader, all the high school kids seem indistinguishable. As a result, there is no impulse to mourn as each one falls by the wayside.
Milius said that:
The movie was very successful. It was just roundly hated by the liberal community and critics. I was vilified and excoriated to a degree–and I was one who was used to being vilified and excoriated for my movies–but that movie really got their dander up... You see the tremendous cost of everything. Nobody comes out of it whole or unscarred. The ones that in the end, when they get away, they’re looking down on this vast plain and say, "We’re free now." And he says, "Free to do what?"
References in the film
The film's score was composed and conducted by Basil Poledouris; it was the first soundtrack album to be released (on LP and compact disc) by Intrada Records. The label issued the complete score in 2007.
In popular culture
The movie has become a big cult success. Milius:
It was almost like a Revolutionary War message. It’s the nature of America’s struggle against oppression. But the movie, because it was a rare patriotic movie in a time when that really wasn’t done very often, I think it really struck a chord. It really struck a chord with people who’ve grown up [with it]… They've told me, "God, I just love that movie." Because everybody, I think, had that fantasy of what would happen if your home was invaded and you would fight the Russians and whatever.
Operation Red Dawn
Main article: Operation Red Dawn
The operation to capture former Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein was named Operation Red Dawn and its targets were dubbed Wolverine 1 and Wolverine 2. Army Captain Geoffrey McMurray, who named the mission, said the naming "was so fitting because it was a patriotic, pro-American movie." Milius approved of the naming: "I was deeply flattered and honored. It's nice to have a lasting legacy."
"I was very proud," said Milius. "I was just thrilled. It's nice to be liked someplace in the world. I have very strong supporters in the military."
Main article: Red Dawn (2012 film)
The remake takes place in a slightly altered version of the modern day (c. 2012), with North Korea invading the United States. Milius did not like the remake, and criticised it as "terrible" after reading an original script where the villains were Chinese.
There was a strange feeling to the whole thing. They were fans of the movie so they put in stuff they thought was neat. It's all about neat action scenes, and has nothing to do with story.... There's only one example in 4,000 years of Chinese territorial adventurism, and that was in 1979, when they invaded Vietnam, and to put it mildly they got their [butts] handed to them... Why would China want us? They sell us stuff. We're a market. I would have done it about Mexico.
- ^ abc"Red Dawn (1984)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved December 5, 2012.
- ^ abGoldstein, Patrick (August 16, 1984). "'RED DAWN' IS MILIUS' KIND OF MOVIE: JOHN MILIUS". Los Angeles Times. p. i1.
- ^Fernandez, Jay A.; Borys Kit (July 9, 2008). "'Red Dawn' redo lands director, scribe; MGM will remake the 1984 action drama". The Hollywood Reporter.
- ^Richard E. Sincere, Jr. (October 1984). "Schoolkids Battle Red Army in Red Dawn". Journal of Civil Defense. The American Civil Defense Association: 17.
- ^ abcBart, Peter (September 28, 2009). "First Look: Famous Firings a Tough Ax to Follow". Variety. p. 2.
- ^ abcdefDwyer, Johnny (December 28, 2003). "Red Dawn's New Day, an interview with John Milius, the author and director". Free Republic.
- ^Shaw, Tony (2007). Hollywood's Cold War. Edinburgh University Press. p. 270. ISBN 9780748630738.
- ^Hoberman, J. (November 2012). "The North Koreans Are Coming!". Film Comment (48.6 ed.). pp. 52–54, 56.
- ^"Red Dawn Movie Filming Locations". The 80s Movies Rewind. Fast-rewind.com. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
- ^Baltake, Joe (July 18, 1985). "ACTOR FINDS SUCCESS IN THE WILDS". Philadelphia Daily News. p. 51.
- ^Mann, Roderick (February 28, 1987). "THOMPSON'S AGE OF DISCONTENT". Los Angeles Times. p. 1.
- ^"Red Dawn". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved October 19, 2017.
- ^Review of film at New York Times
- ^ abLondon, Michael. "FILM CLIPS: DeLOREAN REJECTS 1ST BID FOR FILM BIOGRAPHY FILM CLIPS: DeLOREAN". Los Angeles Times (1923–Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] September 19, 1984: i1.
- ^"Red Dawn Condemned As Rife With Violence". The New York Times. September 4, 1984.
- ^ abArseneau, Adam (August 6, 2007). "Red Dawn: Collector's Edition". DVD Verdict. Retrieved September 13, 2010.
- ^Pond, Steve (September 13, 1984). "'Red Dawn' Under Fire: Dateline Hollywood". The Washington Post. p. E7.
- ^London, Michael (January 2, 1985). "OFF-CAMERA HOLLYWOOD HIGHLIGHTS". Los Angeles Times. p. 1.
- ^Miller, John (February 23, 2009). "The Best Conservative Movies". National Review. Retrieved March 22, 2013.
- ^Walker, Jesse (January 28, 2008). "The Ghost of Rambo". Reason.
- ^Murray Rothbard (July–August 1984). "Red Dawn". Libertarian Forum. Retrieved October 9, 2016.
- ^"Interview with John Milius " The Implied Observer". Impliedobserver.wordpress.com. March 9, 2009. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
- ^Maslin, Janet (August 10, 1984). "Red Dawn (1984) FILM: 'RED DAWN,' ON WORLD WAR III". The New York Times. Retrieved July 16, 2012.
- ^Stephen Prince (1992). Visions of Empire: Political Imagery in Contemporary American Film. Praeger. p. 57. ISBN 0-275-93662-7.
- ^"Grey Dawn (Season 7, Episode 10) – Episode Guide". South Park Studios. November 5, 2003. Retrieved October 4, 2010.
- ^"Red Dawn: The Musical". Retrieved 26 February 2018.
- ^"News: Video game set to take place in Montrose (Montrose, CO)". Montrosepress.com. January 14, 2010. Retrieved October 4, 2010.
- ^"Red Dawn Imitated Art". USA Today. December 17, 2003.
- ^"Original 'Red Dawn' director takes aim at the remake". Los Angeles Times. March 26, 2010. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Red Dawn|
Like many university teachers, I have had numerous students asking me what critical thinking is, or how they can become better critical thinkers. We do workshops and lectures on this, and there is a healthy cottage industry in “teach yourself critical thinking” books. Still, in a recent survey at my institution, critical thinking came up as one of the top skills that students feel they struggle to acquire.
So we in learning development and academic skills must try harder. Or must we? As I struggled to satisfactorily answer the latest student to ask me what critical thinking was, I was suddenly minded to subject critical thinking to some…well, critical thinking. And it occurs to me that, perhaps, there is no such thing as critical thinking at all: that the concept is just a tautology.
It’s a tautology because, to my mind, thinking encapsulates being critical. Otherwise it’s not thinking. So, in a sense, you can’t teach critical thinking because it doesn’t really exist as a distinct entity.
Most sentient human beings think well enough, and our students are (mostly) no exception. They “think critically” all the time. Last term, I was standing in the queue at a college cafe (where an awful lot of my undercover ethnography is conducted), and I overheard a discussion between three newly arrived 18-year-olds on the best method of commuting to and from the nearby town. The conversation was, in effect, a cogent cost-benefit analysis of various possible forms of transport. Evidence was weighed against evidence, conclusions were drawn and a consensus was reached that the humble bicycle, would, all things considered, represent the most cost-effective form of conveyance over the longer term. Hurrah, I thought – here’s an informed exegesis to challenge our car-obsessed society: bring in the political advisers!
If these students are doing such a good job of thinking “critically”, why do they feel the need to ask me what critical thinking is? Why do they need workshops and self-help books? I think the answer is that they struggle to express their critical thinking in accordance with academic conventions. In other words, they can walk the walk but not, alas, talk the talk. This is what we need to teach them, and it means paying explicit attention to writing at university, and being prepared to talk about that writing.
As is well attested in the pedagogical literature, talking ideas through and writing them down helps to foster clear and logical thinking. Writing is a powerful tool for developing sharp arguments. Yet, in the UK at least, it is woefully underused. Unlike in the US, little overt attention has been historically dedicated to “teaching” writing; all too often, essays are written with little or no feedback between drafts, and with detailed comments given only when it is too late for students to act on them. This is both ironic and puzzling considering the sheer quantity of written work produced by the average degree student.
When undergraduates start talking about their writing, they start thinking better, often with startling results. In my own work in one-to-one writing tutorials, I know that such discussions can lead to palpable improvements, not just in a student’s writing for a particular module or course, but in their longer-term effectiveness as learners. I make sure that the student leaves with a concrete sense of how they can improve their writing. And I like to think that they thereby leave as better thinkers.
So let’s consign the term “critical thinking” to the dustbin of buzzwords and focus instead on challenging students simply to think, by providing them with gripping content and teaching them the power of effective written and oral communication. This surely is something truly transformative that will stay with them for the rest of their lives.
Stuart Wrigley is a teaching fellow at Royal Holloway, University of London’s Centre for the Development of Academic Skills.